Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A native of southern and eastern Europe, locally established in northeastern North America, perhaps as an escape from cultivation although not generally listed as a horticultural species. Collected as abundant in a roadside ditch in southern Kent Co. in 1944 (C. W. Bazuin 6194, ALMA).
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. March 22, 2018. http://www.michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=1174.