Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
G. E. Crow
Shallow to deep water of lakes, rivers, ditches, etc., including the Great Lakes, introduced from Europe and first collected in 1926 in Ottawa Co. Seems to thrive in polluted waters. See Stuckey (1979) for more details.
Although this species fruits very rarely, it is frequently found with prominent winter-buds (branchlets with variously modified leaves and shortened, hardened internodes), which apparently serve in propagation.