Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Disturbed open forests. A European garden plant first collected as an escape in Michigan by H. A. Crum in Cheboygan Co. in 1998. This is a shorter species, usually only 5–8 dm tall, in contrast to our other two species, which are often more than a meter tall. The roots bear striking, tuberously thickened zones.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. December 11, 2017. http://www.michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=2481.