Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Dry, open sandy ground.
First collected in Michigan by I. Shackleford in Houghton Co. in 2006. A western species, sometimes considered native in the east and therefore a disjunct, but our only Michigan occurrence seems clearly adventive in a gravel pit. Collections in adjacent Ontario are much more mysterious and may well represent rare disjunct populations. See Oldham & Macdonald (2015) for detailed information about these Ontario occurrences.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. February 25, 2018. http://www.michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=2826.