Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A native of Europe, locally well established in moist ground at Marquette and in Eaton Co.; first collected in both areas in 1976.
Blades of the reniform to orbicular, closely toothed basal leaves are huge, often as broad as 3.5 dm and are recorded as 1 m on plants in Eaton Co.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. December 21, 2014. http://www.michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=421.