Please try our next iteration of the Michigan Flora Online here. Beginning on February 1, 2023, will point to this new site.

The new site offers several benefits over the existing website, including real coordinate mapping, giving a clearer view of the density of documentation as well as more precision about plant distributions and their link to landforms. We will also have the ability to update species pages more regularly, both in terms of new collections and as more existing Michigan specimens are georeferenced. In addition, we have a better photo display, and offer indented keys.


1. Inflorescences all axillary, nearly spherical to short-cylindric at anthesis, much shorter than peduncles (which usually equal or exceed the leaves); corolla 4-lobed; nutlets 2.


1. Inflorescences all or mostly terminal, elongate at anthesis, exceeding the peduncles; corolla 5-lobed; nutlets 4.

2. Spikes (at least excluding corolla) less than 8 mm thick; plant stiffly erect, with leaves unlobed or lobed only at the base (pinnate only in V. officinalis).

Verbena (in part)

2. Spikes (even excluding corollas) at least (8–) 12 mm thick; plant ± spreading-decumbent, with incised-pinnatifid leaves.

3. Bracts shorter than calyx; corolla showy, with long exserted tube and limb ca. 1 cm or more broad; style greatly exceeding calyx, conspicuous after shedding of corolla; calyx hairs (or some of them) gland-tipped.


3. Bracts much longer than calyx; corolla inconspicuous, shorter than the bracts, with limb less than 0.5 cm broad; style shorter than calyx, very inconspicuous; calyx hairs without gland-tips.

Verbena bracteata


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. January 29, 2023.