1. Inflorescences all axillary, nearly spherical to short-cylindric at anthesis, much shorter than peduncles (which usually equal or exceed the leaves); corolla 4-lobed; nutlets 2.
1. Inflorescences all or mostly terminal, elongate at anthesis, exceeding the peduncles; corolla 5-lobed; nutlets 4.
2. Spikes (at least excluding corolla) less than 8 mm thick; plant stiffly erect, with leaves unlobed or lobed only at the base (pinnate only in V. officinalis).
Verbena (in part)
2. Spikes (even excluding corollas) at least (8–) 12 mm thick; plant ± spreading-decumbent, with incised-pinnatifid leaves.
3. Bracts shorter than calyx; corolla showy, with long exserted tube and limb ca. 1 cm or more broad; style greatly exceeding calyx, conspicuous after shedding of corolla; calyx hairs (or some of them) gland-tipped.
3. Bracts much longer than calyx; corolla inconspicuous, shorter than the bracts, with limb less than 0.5 cm broad; style shorter than calyx, very inconspicuous; calyx hairs without gland-tips.
All species found in Verbenaceae
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. September 28, 2022. https://www.michiganflora.net/family.aspx?id=Verbenaceae.