Please try our next iteration of the Michigan Flora Online here.

The new site offers several benefits over the existing website, including real coordinate mapping, giving a clearer view of the density of documentation as well as more precision about plant distributions and their link to landforms. We will also have the ability to update species pages more regularly, both in terms of new collections and as more existing Michigan specimens are georeferenced. In addition, we have a better photo display, and offer indented keys.

Adams, R. P., A. V. Gilman, M. Hickler, B. P. Streets & J. P. Vanderhorst. 2016.  First molecular evidence that Juniperus communis var. communis from the eastern hemisphere is growing in the northeastern United States. Phytologia 98: 8–16.

Aedo, C. 2000. The genus Geranium L. (Geraniaceae) in North America. I. Annual species. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 58: 39–82.

Akiyama, S. 1988. A revision of the genus Lespedeza section Macrolespedeza (Leguminosae). Bull. Univ. Mus. Tokyo 33. 170 pp.

Albach, D. C., M. M. Martínez-Ortega, M. A. Fischer, & M. W. Chase. 2004. A new classification of the tribe Veroniceae - problems and a possible solution. Taxon 53: 429–452.

Alice, L. A. & C. S. Campbell. 1999. Phylogeny of Rubus (Rosaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences Amer. J. Bot. 86: 81–97.

Al-Shehbaz, I. A. & B. G. Schubert. 1989. The Dioscoreaceae of the Southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 70: 57–95.

Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 2003. Transfer of most North American species of Arabis to Boechera (Brassicaceae). Novon 13: 381–391.

Al-Shehbaz, I. A. & J. L. Zarucchi. 2008. Boechera dentata is the correct name for B. shortii (Brassicaceae). Harvard Pap. Bot. 13: 293–294.

Al-Shehbaz, I. A. & R. A. Price. 1998. Delimitation of the genus Nasturtium (Brassicaceae). Novon 8:124–126.

Al-Shehbaz, I. A., M. A. Beilstein, & E. A. Kellogg. 2006. Systematics and phylogeny of the Brassicaceae: an overview. Pl. Syst. Evol. 259: 89–120.

Anderberg, A. A. 1994. Phylogeny of the Empetraceae, with special emphasis on character evolution in the genus Empetrum. Syst. Bot. 19: 35–46.

Applequist, W. L. 2002. A reassessment of the nomenclature of Matricaria L. and Tripleurospermum Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae). Taxon 51: 757–761.

Bailey, L. H. 1881. Woodwardia angustifolia in Michigan. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 8: 47.

Ballard, H. E. 1990. Hybrids among three caulescent violets, with special reference to Michigan. Michigan Botanist 29: 43–54.

Ballard, H. E. 1994. Violets of Michigan. Michigan Botanist 33: 131–199.

Barkworth, M. E., J. J. N. Campbell, & B. Salomon. 2007. Elymus. Vol. 24. pp. 288–343. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds.). 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

Barneby, R. C. 1991. Sensitivae censitae: a description of the genus Mimosa Linnaeus (Mimosaceae) in the New World. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 65. 835 pp.

Barnes, B. V. & B. P. Dancik. 1985. Characteristics and origin of a new birch species, Betula murrayana, from southeastern Michigan. Canad. J. Bot. 63: 223–226.

Bateman, R. M., A. M. Pridgeon, & M. W. Chase. 1997. Phylogenetics of subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences: 2. Infrageneric relationships and reclassification to achieve monophyly of Orchis sensu stricto. Lindleyana 12: 113–141.

Bateman, R. M., P. M. Hollingsworth, J. Preston, Y.-B. Luo, A. M. Pridgeon, & M. W. Chase. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution of Orchidinae and selected Habenariinae (Orchidaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 142: 1–40.

Bateman, R. M., K. E. James, Y.-B. Luo, R. K. Lauri, T. Fulcher, P. J. Cribb, & M. W. Chase. 2009. Molecular Phylogenetics and Morphological Reappraisal of the Platanthera Clade (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae) Prompts Expansion of the Generic Limits of Galearis and Platanthera. Ann. Bot. 104: 431–445.

Beardsley, P. M. & R. G. Olmstead. 2002. Redefining Phrymaceae: The placement of Mimulus, tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1093–1102.

Beitel, J. M. 1979. The Clubmosses Lycopodium sitchense and L. sabinifolium in the Upper Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist 18: 3–13.

Belyaeva, I. 2009. Nomenclature of Salix fragilis L. and a New Species, S. euxina (Salicaceae) Taxon Vol. 58: 1344-1348.

Blanché, C. & J. Molero. 1993.Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Delphinium L. Bot. J. Linn. Soc.113: 125–133.

Bolmgren, K. & B. Oxelman. 2004.Generic limits in Rhamnus L. s.l. (Rhamnaceae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence phylogenies. Taxon 53: 383–390.

Boufford, D. E. 2005. Circaea lutetiana sensu lato (Onagraceae) reconsidered. Harvard Pap. Bot. 9:255–256.

Brouillet, L., J. C. Semple, G. A. Allen, K. L. Chambers, & S. D. Sundberg. 2006. Symphyotrichum. Vol. 20. pp. 464–539. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds.). 2006. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

Brown, D. F. M. 1964.  A monographic study of the fern genus Woodsia. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 16: 1–154. 

Brummitt, R. K. 1986. Report of the Committee for Spermatophyta: 30. Taxon 35: 562.

Brummitt, R. K 2007. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular plants 59. Taxon 56: 1291.

Burgess, K. S. & B. C. Husband. 2006. Habitat differentiation and the ecological costs of hybridization: The effects of introduced mulberry (Morus alba) on a native congener (M. rubra). J. Ecol. 94: 1061–1069.

Burnham, R. J. & C. V. Santanna. 2015. Distribution, diversity, and traits of native, exotic, and invasive climbing plants in Michigan. Brittonia 67: 350–370.

Cantino, P. D. & S. J. Wagstaff. 1998. A reexamination of North American Satureja s.l. (Lamiaceae) in light of Molecular evidence. Brittonia 50: 63–70.

Case, F. W. 1983. Platanthera ×vossii, a new natural hybrid orchid from northern Lower Michigan. Michigan Botanist 22: 141–144.

Case, F. W. 1987. Orchids of the western Great Lakes region: revised edition. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. 48. 251 pp.

Case, F. W. & R. B. Case. 1997. Trilliums. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 285 pp.

Case, F. W. & P. M. Catling. 1983. The genus Spiranthes in Michigan. Michigan Botanist 22: 79–92.

Catling, P. M. 1998. A synopsis of the genus Proserpinaca in the southeastern United States. Castanea 63: 408–414.

Catling, P. M. 2005. Identification and Status of Black Pine, Pinus nigra, and Mugo Pine, Pinus mugo,in Ontario. Can. Field-Naturalist 119: 224–232.

Catling, P. M. and G. Mitrow. 2005. The dune race of Vitis riparia in Ontario: Taxonomy, conservation and biogeography. Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 85: 407–415.

Catling, P. M. & K. W. Spicer. 1987. The perennial Juncus of section Poiophylli in the Canadian prairie provinces. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 750–760.

Catling, P. M. & K. W. Spicer. 1988. The separation of Betula populifolia and Betula pendula and their status in Ontario. Can. J. Forest Res. 18: 1017–26.

Catling, P. M. & V. R. Catling. 1997. Morphological discrimination of Platanthera huronensis in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Lindleyana 12: 72–78.

Catling, P. M., G. Mitrow, & L. Black. 2007. Analysis of stem color and correlated morphological characters for grouping Phragmites (Poaceae) taxa in eastern Ontario. Rhodora 109: 125–136.

Catling, P. M., S. M. McKay-Kuja, & G. Mitrow. 1999. Rank and typification in North American dwarf cherries, and a key to the taxa. Taxon 48: 483–488.

Chapman, K. A. 1986. Alpine Hedysarum (Hedysarum alpinum) discovered in Michigan. Michigan Botanist 25: 45–46.

Chiapella, J. 2007. A molecular phylogenetic study of Deschampsia (Poaceae: Aveneae) inferred from nuclear ITS and plastid trnL sequence data: support for the recognition of Avenella and Vahlodea. Taxon 56: 55–64.

Cholewa, A. F. & D. M. Henderson. 2002. Sisyrinchium. Vol. 26. pp. 351–371. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds.). 2002. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

Christenhusz, M. J. M., X.-C. Zhang & H. Schneider. 2011. A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns. Phytotaxa 19: 7–54.

Chung, M. Y., López-Pujol, J., Chung, J. M., Kim, K-J., Park, S. J., & Chung, M. G. 2015. Polyploidy in Lilium lancifolium: Evidence of autotriploidy and no niche divergence between diploid and triploid cytotypes in their native ranges. Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 213: 57-68.

Churchill, J. A. 1976. Eleocharis atropurpurea in Michigan. Michigan Botanist 15: 182.

Ciotir, C., H. Kirk, J. R. Row, J. R. Freeland. 2013. Intercontinental dispersal of Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia between Europe and North America has implications for Typha invasions. Biological Invasions 15: 1377–1390.

Clemants, S. E. & S. L. Mosyakin. 2003. Chenopodium. Vol. 4. pp. 275–299. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds.). 2003. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

Cochrane, T. S. 2000. The distribution of Carex platyphylla (Cyperaceae: sect. Careyanae) with emphasis on the Western Great Lakes region. Michigan Botanist 37: 3–11.

Cohen, J. I. & J. I. Davis. 2009. Nomenclatural changes in Lithospermum (Boraginaceae) and related taxa following a reassessment of phylogenetic relationships. Brittonia 61: 101–111.

Cole, E. J. 1898. Cleistogamous flowers on Solea concolor. Asa Gray Bulletin 6: 50.

Cole, E. J. 1901. Grand Rapids Flora. A. Van Dort, Grand Rapids. 170 pp.

Columbus, J. T. 1999. An Expanded Circumscription of Bouteloua (Gramineae: Chloridoideae): New Combinations and Names. Aliso 18: 61–65.

Compton, J. A., A. Culham, & S. L. Jury. 1998. Reclassification of Actaea to include Cimicifuga and Souliea (Ranunculaceae): phylogeny inferred from morphology, nrDNA ITS, and cpDNA trnL-F sequence variation. Taxon 47: 593–634.

Costea, M., F. J. Tardif, & H. R. Hinds. 2005. Polygonum. Vol. 5. pp. 547–571. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds.). 2005. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

Cranfill, R. 1983. The Distribution of Woodwardia areolata. American Fern Journal 73: 46–52.

Crow, G. E. 2017. Emma Cole's 1901 Grand Rapids Flora: Nomenclaturally Updated and Revised. Great Lakes Botanist 56: 98 – 176.

Culley T. M. &  N. A. Hardiman. 2007. The Beginning of a New Invasive Plant: A History of the Ornamental Callery Pear in the United States. BioScience 57: 956-964.

Cusick, A. W. 2002. Noteworthy collections: Michigan. Castanea 67: 216–217.

Cusick, A. W., R. K. Rabeler, & M. J. Oldham. 2002. Hard or Fairgrounds Grass (Sclerochloa dura, Poaceae) in the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist 41: 125–135.

Darbyshire, S. J. 1993. Realignment of Festuca Subgenus Schedonorus with the Genus Lolium (Poaceae). Novon 3: 239243.

Darbyshire, S. J. & L. E. Pavlick. 1997. Nomenclatural Notes on North American Grasses. Phytologia 83: 73–78.

Darbyshire, S. J. & L. E. Pavlick. 2007. Festuca. Vol. 24. pp. 389–443. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds.). 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

Darbyshire, S. J. & J. Cayouette. 1995. Identification of the species in the Panicum capillare complex (Poaceae) from eastern Canada and adjacent New York State. Canad. J. Bot. 73: 333–348.

Delisle-Oldham, M., M. J. Oldham, & P. M. Catling. 2008. Taxonomic recognition of Ammophila champlainensis and morphological variation in northeastern North American Ammophila (Poaceae). Rhodora 110: 129–156.

Dister, D. C. 2010. Noteworthy collection: Arctium lappa, Michigan. Michigan Botanist 49: 99–102.

Dewey, C. 1834. Caricography. Amer. J. of Sci. Arts, ser. 1, 25: 140–146.

Dietrich, W., W. L. Wagner, & P. H. Raven. 1997. Systematics of Oenothera section Oenothera subsection Oenothera (Onagraceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 50: 1–234.

Dodge, C. K. 1921. Miscellaneous Papers on the Botany of Michigan. Michigan Geological and Biological Survey. Publication 31. Biological ser. 6: 1-234.

Dore, W. G. & J. McNeill. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Agriculture Canada Research Branch Monograph 26. 566 pp.

Drife, D. C., & J. E. Drife. 1990. Oliver A. Farwell’s Early Pteridophyte Records from the Keweenaw Peninsula. Michigan Botanist 29: 89–96.

Duffy, D. C. 1990. Land of Milk and Poison. Nat. Hist. July 1990: 4–8.

Dunlop, D. A. & G. E. Crow. 1999. The taxonomy of Carex section Scirpinae (Cyperaceae). Rhodora 101: 163–199.

Ehrendorfer, F. & M.H.J. Barfuss, 2014. Paraphyly and Polyphyly in the Worldwide Tribe Rubieae (Rubiaceae): Challenges for Generic Delimitation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 100(1-2):79-88.

Elowsky, C. G., I. E. Jordon-Thaden, & R. B. Kaul. 2013. A morphological analysis of a hybrid swarm of native Ulmus rubra Muhl. and introduced U. pumila L. (Ulmaceae) in southeastern Nebraska. Phytoneuron 2013-44: 1–23.

Emadzade, K., C. Lehnebach, P. Lockhart, & E. Hörandl. 2010. A molecular phylogeny, morphology and classification of genera of Ranunculeae (Ranunculaceae). Taxon 59: 809–828.

England, W. H. & R. J. Tolbert. 1964. A Seasonal Study of the Vegetative Shoot Apex of Myriophyllum heretophyllum. Amer. J. Bot. 51: 349–353.

Ertter, B. J. 2007. Generic realignments in tribe Potentilleae and revision of Drymocallis (Rosoideae: Rosaceae) in North America. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 31–46.

Evrard, C. & C.V. Hove. 2004. Taxonomy of the American Azolla species (Azollaceae) a critical review. Systematics and Geography of Plants 74: 301–318.

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Farwell, A. O. 1902. A Catalogue of the Flora of Detroit. Rep. (Annual) Michigan Acad. Sci. 2: 31– 68. 

Farwell, O. A. 1904. Contributions to the Botany of Michigan. No. 8. Rep. (Annual) Michigan Acad. Sci. 6: 200–214.

Farwell, O. A. 1918. New spe3cies and varieties from Michigan. Rep. (Annual) Michigan Acad. Sci. 19: 247–263. 

Farwell, O.A. 1919. Notes on the Flora of Michigan. Rep. (Annual) Michigan Acad. Sci. 20: 163 –193. 

Farwell, O. A. 1924. Notes on the Michigan Flora Part VI. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 3: 87–109.

Farwell, O. A. 1926. Botanical Gleanings in Michigan, III. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 10: 19–46.

Farwell, O. A. 1927. Botanical Gleanings in Michigan, IV. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 10: 199–219.

Farwell, O. A. 1930. Botanical Gleanings in Michigan, VI. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 12: 113–134.

Fawcett, S., & A. A. Reznicek. 2018. How Large Can Taxus canadensis Grow? The Great Lakes Botanist 57: 158–162.

Fernald, M. L. 1945. Botanical Specialties of the Seward Forest and adjacent Areas of Southeastern Virginia. Rhodora 47: 93–142.

Finot, V. L., P. M. Peterson, R. J. Soreng, & F. O. Zuloaga. 2005. A revision of Trisetum and Graphephorum (Poaceae: Pooideae: Aveninae) in North America north of Mexico. Sida 21: 1419–1453.

Frajman, B., N. Heidari, & B. Oxelman. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of Atocion and Viscaria (Sileneae, Caryophyllaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear ribosomal, and low copy gene DNA sequences. Taxon 58: 811–824.

Freckmann, R. W. & M. G. Lelong. 2002. Nomenclatural changes and innovations in Panicum and Dichanthelium (Poaceae: Paniceae). Sida 20: 161–174.

Freckmann, R. W. & M. G. Lelong.  2003.  Dichanthelium. Vol. 25. pp. 406–450. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds.). 2003. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

Freudenstein, J. V. & J. K. Marr. 1986. The discovery of Draba glabella in Michigan with notes on Draba from Isle Royale National Park. Michigan Botanist 25: 109–111.

Fritsch, P. W. & S. D. Lucas. 2000. Clinal variation in the Halesia carolina complex (Styracaceae). Syst. Bot. 25: 197–210.

Ganders, F. R., M. Berbee, & M. Pirseyedi. 2000. ITS base sequence phylogeny in Bidens (Asteraceae): evidence for the continental relatives of Hawaiian and Marquesan Bidens. Syst. Bot. 25: 122–133.

Gardner, R. L. 2008. Noteworthy collection: Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Ohio. Michigan Botanist 47: 77–78.

Geltman, D. V. 1998. Taxonomic notes on Euphorbia esula (Euphorbiaceae) with special reference to its occurrence in the east part of the Baltic region. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 35: 113–117.

Gerdes, L. B. 1998. Aster nemoralis and the apparent hybrid Aster nemoralis × Aster umbellatus in Houghton County, Michigan. Michigan Botanist 37: 17–20.

Gereau, R. E. & R. K. Rabeler. 1984. Eurasian introductions to the Michigan Flora: 2. Michigan Botanist 23: 51–56.

Gertz, A. K., J. Eisenbach, & G. K. Walker. 1994. SEM identification of Michigan cattails, Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia, and their hybrid, Typha ×glauca. Michigan Botanist 33: 27–36.

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Gil-Ad, N. L. 1997. Systematics of Viola subsection Boreali-Americanae. Boissiera. 53: 5–130.

Gillis, W. T. 1980. Wisteria in the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist 19: 79–83.

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Greuter, W., W. Gutermann, & S. Talavera. 2006. A preliminary conspectus of Scorzoneroides (Compositae, Cichorieae) with validation of the required new names. Willdenowia 36: 689–692.

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Grimm, G. W. & T. Denk. 2010. The reticulate origin of modern plane trees (Platanus, Platanaceae): a nuclear marker puzzle. Taxon 59: 134–147.

Guala, G. F. II. 1988. Poa bulbosa L. (Poaceae) in Michigan. Michigan Botanist 27: 13–14.

Haberle, R. C., A. Dang, T. Lee, C. Peñaflor, H. Cortes-Burns, A. Oestreich, L. A. Raubeson, N. Cellinese, E. J. Edwards, S. T. Kim, W. M. M. Eddie, & R. K. Jansen. 2009. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of a phylogenetic analysis of the Campanulaceae based on three chloroplast genes. Taxon 58: 715–734.

Hagen, K. B. von & J. W. Kadereit. 2002. Phylogeny and flower evolution of the Swertiinae (Gentianaceae-Gentianae): Homoplasy and the principle of variable proportions. Syst. Bot. 27: 548–572.

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Hämet-Ahti, L. 1980b. Juncus alpinoarticulatus: the legitimate name for Juncus alpinus. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 17: 341–342.

Hansen, H. V. & K. I. Christensen. 2009. The common chamomile and the scentless mayweed revisited. Taxon 58: 261–264.

Harris, A. G. & J. K. Marr. 2009. Caltha natans Pallas (Ranunculaceae) New for Michigan and Thunder Bay District Ontario. Michigan Botanist 48: 72–77.

Hart, T. C. & T. H. Ives. 2013. Preliminary Starch Grain Evidence of Ancient Stone Tool Use at the Early Archaic (9,000 B.P.) Site of Sandy Hill, Mashantucket, Connecticut. Ethnobiology Letters 4:87‐95.

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Hess, W. J. 1986. Wolffia papulifera Thompson (Lemnaceae) new to Michigan. Sida 11: 407–411.

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Hidalgo, O., N. Garcia-Jacas, T. Garnatje, & A. Susanna. 2006. Phylogeny of Rhaponticum (Asteraceae, Cardueae–Centaureinae) and Related Genera Inferred from Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA Sequence Data: Taxonomic and Biogeographic Implications. Ann. Bot. 97: 705–714.

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Hipp, A. L. 2010. Hill’s Oak: The Taxonomy and Dynamics of a Western Great Lakes Endemic. Arnoldia 67: 2–14.

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Hough, M.  2018. Geum ×cortlandicum (Rosaceae), a new natural hybrid plus three Geum urbanum hybrids new to the flora of New York.  Phytoneuron 2018-59: 1–9.

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Krause, J. G. 2012. Lygodium palmatum. Noteworthy Collection. Michigan. Michigan Botanist 51: 117-120. 

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Reznicek, A. A. 1994. The Disjunct Coastal Plain Flora in the Great Lakes Region. Biol. Conservation 68: 203–215.

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Reznicek, A. A. 2001. Mulberry Weed (Fatoua villosa) spread as far north as Michigan. Michigan Botanist 40: 73–74.

Reznicek, A. A. & D. Henson. 1982. Carex heleonastes, New to Michigan and the Contiguous United States. Michigan Botanist 21: 169–170.

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Rohrer, J. R. 2000. The sand cherry in Wisconsin and neighboring states. Michigan Botanist 39: 59–69.

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Rotter, M. C. 2018. Noteworthy Collection: Petasites hybridus. The Great Lakes Botanist 57: 45–48.

Routledge, R., A. Graeff & J. Marr  2020. The Discovery of Eriophorum russeolum Fr. subsp. leiocarpum Novoselova (Cyperaceae), White-Bristled Russet Cottongrass, in Michigan. The Great Lakes Botanist 59: 234–238. 

Routledge, R., A. Graeff, G. E. Crow. 2020. The Discovery of Utricularia ochroleuca (Lentibulariaceae), Yellowish-White Bladderwort, in Michigan. The Great Lakes Botanist 59: 239–245. 

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Wagner, W. H. 1971. The southeastern Adder's-Tongue, Ophioglossum vulgatum var. pycnostichum, found for the first time in Michigan. Michigan Botanist 10: 67–74.

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Wagner, W. H. Jr. 2000. Leaf forms in Sassafras in southeastern Michigan. Michigan Botanist 39: 70–76.

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