Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Fields and open young forests in disturbed or successional habitats.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. June 20, 2019. https://www.michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=1036.