Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
B. S. Slaughter
An understory shrub, often on forested dunes and rocks, under hardwoods and/or conifers, and in bordering thickets. This is another western American species, disjunct to the south side of Lake Superior (only in Michigan and in Pukaskwa National Park, Ontario). There are fine colonies of both this species and V. ovalifolium (which often grow together) along Lake Superior near the western edge of Muskellunge Lake State Park in Luce Co., at Mt. Bohemia in Keweenaw Co., and many other places.
The dark fruit is very large (to 18 mm), juicy and tasty. The leaves are not at all glaucous, but often a rather yellow-green, as long as 6.5 or even 8 cm.