Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
An important world crop plant (for oil, seeds, fodder), its origins lost in antiquity. An annual, widely grown in southern Michigan. First collected as an escape in 1931 in Wayne Co.; rarely spontaneous near cultivation as a temporary waif.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. February 22, 2019. https://www.michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=1303.