Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Native in southwestern Europe, locally established as an escape from cultivation, with potential for becoming a serious weed. Long cultivated, and collected in Ingham Co. as early as 1880; now well established in forests, thickets, roadsides, and fencerows there as well as elsewhere.
If this plant is included in the broad genus Cynanchum, the correct name is C. louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi.