Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A western American species that is a rare escape from cultivation. Collected in Houghton Co. in 1990 by P. A. Hyypio as “well established” in a woodlot.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. July 25, 2021. https://www.michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=1697.