Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Swamps (especially cedar), frequently on rotting logs; hardwood forests, especially in moist depressions, ravines, and springy slopes.
Usually a small delicate-looking species, occasionally as tall as 30 cm. Circaea canadensis is only very rarely as short as 30 cm. Circaea alpina blooms earlier than C. canadensis, with only a slight overlap in some seasons. The hybrid (C. ×sterilis Boufford), quite intermediate between the two (with ovaries aborting and highly sterile pollen), is likely to be mistaken for either parent, depending on size of the plant. It is very rare in Michigan and has been collected a few times in Marquette and Kent Cos.