Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
B. S. Walters
Typically in dry sandy or rocky forests with oak, hickory, pine, or other trees, sometimes beech and maple and along associated banks and openings; fencerows; sometimes in swampy ground and thickets along rivers.
Most of our specimens are var. rafinesquianum, with leaf blades ± downy beneath and petioles rather densely pubescent. The glabrate extreme, with leaf blades at most pubescent on the main veins and with the petioles glabrate to sparsely hairy, is var. affine (B. F. Bush) House. This variety is known mainly from the southeastern Lower Peninsula, but ranges as far to the northwest as Ontonagon Co. Intermediates between this variable species and V. dentatum are said to occur where there is more overlap in range. Fortunately we seem to have the glabrate variant of V. dentatum and mostly the pubescent extreme of V. rafinesquianum so there is little difficulty in Michigan distinguishing the two. See also notes about V. acerifolium f. ovatum.