Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
A European species, occasionally escaped from cultivation near buildings, along roadsides, on shores, or in forests. First collected in 1890 in Keweenaw Co.
The flowers of cultivated (and sometimes escaped) plants are often modified, with extra floral parts, no spurs, or other distortions that make plants difficult or impossible to key, Fortunately, columbines are readily recognized.
A number of other species and hybrids of Aquilegia are cultivated, and additional escapes are possible. A collection from a roadside at Phoenix, Keweenaw Co. (E. A. Bourdo in 1959, MSC), “apparently an escape,” with mature spurs ± straight and ca. 3 cm long (longer than in the two species here listed), may be a hybrid involving A. chrysantha A. Gray.