Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Perhaps somewhat more often encountered than our other species along shores, on low dunes, and on calcareous gravels, but in essentially similar dry open sandy savannas (aspen, jack pine, oak, red maple) and clearings, sandy thickets, borders of forests (coniferous or deciduous) and bogs.
A complex fairly well recognizable as defined in the key, especially when one is familiar with the admittedly subjective quality of prominent veins running into the teeth and well displayed toward the end of the leaf blade. Characteristically a tall solitary or clumped shrub with longer petals than the A. spicata complex. The inflorescence is often more open and lax (even corymbose) than in A. spicata, though sometimes the raceme is compact and stiff. Also included here is A. huronensis Wiegand, a large-flowered calciphile of the upper Great Lakes region; its veins are said to fork so that the principal branches, not just the main lateral veins, extend straight into the teeth, and the dwarf var. gaspensis Wiegand.