Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Swamps and marshy ground, fields, ditches, along rivers and streams; more weedy than most species (except B. frondosa), its habitats including railroads, roadsides, yards, and vacant lots.
In f. puberula (Wiegand) Fernald, the backs of both the inner and outer phyllaries, as well as much of the upper stem and leaves, are strongly puberulent. It has been collected rarely in Michigan.