Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Deciduous forests with beech, maple, birch, aspen, and/or oak; often with cedar and hemlock or with pine, including hummocks in cedar swamps.
The flowers grow in pairs at the ends of trailing or slightly ascending stems, and are very fragrant. They are heterostylous, all those on any one plant having either long styles and short stamens or vice versa. The corollas are funnel-shaped, with lobes hairy above (suggestive of miniature Menyanthes, which is 5- rather than 4-lobed). The “two-eyed” red fruit (derived from the two flowers of a pair) survives the winter and is conspicuous the following summer, if not hidden beneath leaves or consumed by animals.