Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Swamps, shores, dunes, ditches and swales, stream banks, and other wet, sometimes calcareous sites; rarely upland.
Narrow-leaved extremes, with the blades ± acute at both ends, superficially resemble S. petiolaris, but may usually be distinguished by the large, conspicuous stipules, especially on sprouts, and absence of any copper-colored hairs in the pubescence of young leaves (which are generally red in this species but not in S. petiolaris). Young pistillate specimens in which the leaves are only partly grown, particularly if they lack the usual red color of unfolding leaves, are sometimes confused with S. nigra, although the latter generally has more distinct small vein islets in the leaves. Salix nigra is usually also distinctive in its very short or nearly absent styles, capsules less dense in ament and ± whorled, and more persistent dark scales in the ament. (Staminate plants of these two species are readily distinguished by stamen number: 2 in S. eriocephala and 4–7 in S. nigra.)