Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Deciduous forests of various kinds, especially along borders and trails; swamps and thickets; roadsides and fencerows.
Hybrids with V. hastata have been named V. ×engelmannii Moldenke and are intermediate in size and color of corolla, length of style, and denseness of spikes. They have been identified from Barry, Calhoun, Cass, Ingham, Kalamazoo, Monroe, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne Cos.