Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
A native of southern Europe not commonly cultivated as far north as Michigan and rarely escaped into forests; first collected by R. P. O’Connor in 2009 in Grand Traverse Co.
This is a much larger plant than V. minor, and much less cold hardy; likely to not be invasive (yet) in Michigan except in the warmest areas and in regions with deep snow cover. Most commonly cultivated is the variegated form, but most of our escapes are green-leaved, perhaps suggesting some establishment by seed.
Grand Traverse County
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. July 23, 2019. https://www.michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=2839.