Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
An annual weed of disturbed areas, native southwest of Michigan. First collected in 1916, as a waif in railroad yards on the west side of Detroit, Wayne Co.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. July 21, 2018. https://www.michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=381.