Solidago rugosa Mill.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 3
Coefficient of Wetness: 0
Wetness Index: FAC
Physiognomy: Nt P-Forb

Moist forests and thickets; swamps (both coniferous and hardwood), especially along borders; peatlands; fields, fencerows, ditches; often in disturbed areas in forests and swamps, as along trails and in clearings. An old collection from Keweenaw Co. (O. A. Farwell 732 in 1889, BLH) would be suspiciously disjunct and is not mapped. No one else has ever collected the species that far west in the Upper Peninsula.

Leaves are relatively thin and flat (not very rugose) in the var. rugosa. Variety aspera (Aiton) Fernald has leaves strongly rugose (with veins sunken, as viewed from above, or raised, as viewed from beneath, the surface thus appearing pitted or like hammered metal). Both occur throughout the range of the species in the state, and appear to intergrade somewhat.

Very rarely, the stems are completely glabrous below the inflorescence. Such plants would key to S. ulmifolia, but can generally be distinguished if they possess most or all of the following characters: lower leaves smaller than the middle ones, leaves scabrous-hispidulous above, achenes strongly antrorse-strigose, rays 6 or more per head, stems arising from elongate rhizomes. In S. ulmifolia (which is also an upland forest understory rather than a more wetland plant), lower leaves are somewhat larger than the middle ones and often coarsely toothed, leaves usually have long straight often appressed hairs on the upper surface, achenes are short- and/or sparsely pubescent, rays are 3–5 per head, and stems arise from a thick perennial base, without elongate rhizomes.

An apparent hybrid between this species and S. uliginosa has been found.


Alger County
Allegan County
Alpena County
Antrim County
Arenac County
Barry County
Bay County
Benzie County
Berrien County
Branch County
Cass County
Charlevoix County
    Including Beaver Island
Cheboygan County
Chippewa County
    Including Drummond Island
Clare County
Clinton County
Crawford County
Delta County
Emmet County
Genesee County
Gratiot County
Hillsdale County
Huron County
Ingham County
Jackson County
Kalamazoo County
Kalkaska County
Kent County
Lake County
Lapeer County
Leelanau County
    Including Manitou Islands
Lenawee County
Livingston County
Luce County
Mackinac County
    Including Bois Blanc, Mackinac, Round Islands
Macomb County
Manistee County
Mason County
Mecosta County
Midland County
Missaukee County
Monroe County
Montcalm County
Montmorency County
Muskegon County
Newaygo County
Oakland County
Oceana County
Ogemaw County
Oscoda County
Ottawa County
Presque Isle County
Roscommon County
Saginaw County
Sanilac County
Schoolcraft County
Shiawassee County
St. Clair County
St. Joseph County
Tuscola County
Van Buren County
Washtenaw County
Wayne County


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. November 26, 2022.