Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
flowers and fruits
Sandy and gravelly disturbed ground (roadsides, clearings, fields, gravel pits, dunes, railroads); shores; spreading to dry open forests (oak, aspen, jack pine). By some authors considered native in eastern North America but introduced in the west; by others thought to be native primarily in the west; by some, to be introduced from Eurasia, and by others to be introduced into Europe. Whatever its history, it was probably not native to Michigan, but is now a widespread weed. The earliest Michigan collection dates from 1861 in Washtenaw Co. By the 1870’s it was noted as “common,” however, unlike L. virginicum, the species was apparently not found by the First Survey (1837–1841).
Often misidentified as L. virginicum. The mature fruit of the latter is scarcely if at all longer than broad and tends to be broadest just below the middle. The fruit of L. densiflorum tends to be slightly longer than broad (oblong-elliptic to obovate), often very slightly broader just above the middle, but the shape differences are subtle. A better character is in the seed: in L. virginicum (at least in our region), the cotyledons are accumbent, so that in a cross-section one sees the round embryo at the end of the flattened, parallel cotyledons, diagrammatically shown as =0; in L. densiflorum, the cotyledons are incumbent, so that a cross-section of the seed appears to have 3 structures in a row: 000.